SABAH MOMOGUN-RUNGUS ASSOCIATION (SAMORA)

Several years ago I was approached by somebody (I don’t want to mention his name here) to join Sabah Momogun-Rungus Association or well known as SAMORA. I told him that I was not interested.

I came to know SAMORA long before he approached me to join it. Just that I failed to see the real direction of SAMORA. According to that guy SAMORA is an association for Rungus people, and mostly its activities are to promote Rungus culture.

I am all out for promoting Rungus culture. I believe promoting Rungus culture should start by encouraging the Rungus people especially the younger generation to speak Rungus language. I noticed that many of our young Rungus cannot speak the language. I can speak Rungus perfectly, I bet to my last dollar for it.

I wonder how to promote Rungus culture when the Rungus people itself are not interested to master their own language. We cannot expect the Chinese or Bajau to speak Rungus.

Another reason why I did not joined SAMORA is because the association was heavily infested with politically motivated people. They are fighting each other for important post within the association to shows that they have huge supporters and shall be appointed as candidate for election or something. Almost everybody in its committee is attention whore to boost their political image within the Rungus community.

Not that I hate politics, just that I am of the opinion that an association such as SAMORA shall stay away from politics and remain focused on the main objective.

So the end result is that the association become popular shortly just before the election. That is the time these people are bragging their this and that in the association to shows that they have a strong backing and influences in the community, with the hope some political party might be interested to pick them up for the election.

Until now this important association for Rungus community does not even have its own website. Type SAMORA in the google search box, you will find nothing. I wonder why an association that supposed to represent over 200 thousands Rungus people cannot afford a simple website not even a blog. I believe there is many updates about Rungus people can be uploaded in the website for Rungus people to see and read as well as for any other interested parties to make some research about Rungus.

Anyway I hope this association may evaluate its present position and goals.

YB This and YB That.

In this post I do not have any specific topic to be discussed about. Since it is my blog, I will write anything that comes across my mind. I am just expressing about what I feel. In Malaysia we are practicing freedom of expression is not it? So do not expect anything from this post. Let get started.

I still remember when I was 10 years old, one Rungus assemblymen or Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri (ADUN) often came to my house for some drinking session. My mother used to make rice wine or Lihing (local name) to sell at the nearby weekly market or Tamu. Very often those Lihing did not made their way to the Tamu every time that YB and the gangs came to our house.

Not only that my mother not able to sell them to the market but she also had to prepare meals for the YB and his gang during their drinking session. I do not know how but they seem to know when the lihing is available in our house. Needless to mention they never pay a single cent for those.

The end result is from primary one (1) to primary six (6) I never ever experienced about how good it was to have a shoe covering your feet to go to school. Not even a sandal or something. My family cannot afford to buy a pair of shoes or sandal for me to go to the school.

Life was hard and everybody is struggling to stay alive. YB come and go, most of them only able to stay for one term then replaced by a new YB. I lost count about how many YB we had until the present YB. One thing that never changes is the quality of life in my village is still more or less about the same.

Not that I hate those so called YBs as some of the use to be my friend (after become a YB he does not even pick up my phone call or atleast replying my SMS). Some of them use to drink cheap beer with me until late night talking and laughing in the pub or coffee shop.

Power will change one personality. Anyway I do not really care whether they are still my friend or not. After all I don't have any debt to pay to them. We voted them to power so we are their master. The power they have now is given by us.

Now that our YB has done nothing good for us Rungus community, I really think that they actually does not deserve any respect. We should respect them as a human but not the power that they have which given is by the rakyat.

If you throw stone somewhere, beware because the stone might hit somebody YB or a person used to be a YB. YB this and YB that our Rungus community is still here, struggling to stay alive.

I was told and heard that many Rungus young graduate is looking for opportunity to become a candidate for N4. Matunggung. It really makes me laugh like hell. They do not even have any working experience but already aiming to become a YB. Hahahaha.

A Painful and Difficult Decision to Make.

There are some bad sides when one had seen too many things in his or her life. What you had seen directly or indirectly will influence the way how you think.

Very often what you had seen and experienced will influence your decision on how to live your life. And that is exactly what is happening in my life. I often go against what is normally accepted and practiced in the community.

One example is that most people in Rungus community thinks that if you are a graduate you should be working with government, enjoying monthly salary, KWSP or pension as well as respect. There is nothing wrong with that really. However in my opinion, if you are a graduate you should be able to work for yourself, getting involved in entrepreneurship and providing jobs forour fellow Rungus. Oh.. come on, you are a graduate, considered as one of the smartest and brightest person in Rungus community, why should you work and make other people richer for the rest of your life?

If you are the smartest, brightest and toughest in the community you should be capable to establish some business and providing job opportunities for the community. A Rungus should be providing job opportunities for Rungus people.

Every time I have the opportunity to go back to my kampong, I always trying my best to avoid answering a question such as “Which department your are working with now?” or “You should be someone very important in your department” or something like “what is your post now in your department”. Seriously it really makes me so pissed when a question after question something like this being thrown continuously to me.

Well, in fact I am a very experienced and well-trained administrator. My first job was a Temporary Teacher but after one year I gave the job. The school headmaster tried his best to convince me to take Kursus Perguruan Lepasan Ijazah (KPLI), he got the form and recommendation letter ready for me but those documents ended up in the dust bin at home.

A month after that I received an offer to join Sabah Forest Industries (SFI) as Plantation Executive. Free accommodation, utilities and transport ( a car) and attractive salary. In the beginning I was pretty much loved and enjoyed the job. Going up and down the jungle is something really fun and enjoyable. I do the job for almost 4 years and eventually I had enough so I tendered my resignation letter.

Two weeks after that I hit the road backpacking alone for one long year in Australia for 6 months and another 6 months traveling all over from the North Island to the South Island in New Zealand. I moved from city after city, town after town. I don’t think I am the first backpacker from Rungus community, I am sure there is someone had done it. I would love to meet that guy so we can start talking about providing backpacking tips for Rungus backpacker and to form a Rungus Backpackers Association (RBA). That should be nice to have one.

After that I join one environmental organization. I worked for the organization for 4 long years then eventually I made a decision “ Huh..it had been too long..I am outta here”. I submitted my resignation letter to the director and hit the road again.

This time my mission is very simple. I want to make money and start my own farm in my land. I am going to plant anything that I can sell and will try to employ as may Rungus as possible. I want to prove that a Rungus can provide jobs for Rungus and that the gold mine is actually in our Kampung and not in the city.

I know that many people in my kampong looking at me like “huh..orang ini sudah putus wayar, belajar tinggi-tinggi bertani di kampong pula”. I do not blame them for it. They have every right to think as such.

Believe in yourself; be clear with your goals. That is what I hold dearly right now and nobody can change it. I hope one day with hard work and strong will I can make it happen. A Rungus provide job opportunities for Rungus people. If people ask you for fish, do not give fish but teach them how to fish.

Rungus Chief Executive Officer (CEO) in Thailand.

I stumbled upon this item when I was surfing the internet to do some research about Rungus community. It is about our Mr. James Rubinsin Kotulai. It appears that he have founded a company by the name Aparu International (Thailand) Co. Ltd in Thailand in 2006. He is also the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) for this company. (If the above link does not work, you can search about this company by typing James Rubinsin Kotulai in the google search box)

Wondering about this company, I made several more clicks. The result shows that the main business of this company is in health products. I wonder what will be the problem if they just establish the company in Malaysia instead of Thailand. Isn’t much easier to market those products in Malaysia to your friends or to your community? He has a bigger network in Sabah than in Thailand. I am certain that Mr. James Rubinsin Kotulai has the answer as of why he chooses Thailand. May be we should ask him when you see him back in town.

So some details about the company are here….

"..Aparu International is a general trading company in Thailand. Some of our products are exclusively formulated by reknown manufacturers for our company and distributed worldwide. Currentlym we are exclusive distributor for several health and cosmetic products from USA and Korea.

Our exclusive herbal drinks that will enhance sexual desire for both men and women is called VGO Coctail. it is 100% mixes herbal drinks. We are seeking exclusive distributor in every country around the globe.

Our portable water ionizer called QQ Ion Water is the most convenient alkaline water maker with very competitive price. We are also an appointed distributor of plant-sourced calcium from USA. It has been clinically proven to treat and regain bone loss.

Our other rare health food called PROPOLIS PLUS. It is a balanced mixed of bee propolis and sea cucumber and approved by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Islamic Development Department or JAKIM."

Back in 2006, I was approached by several people to invest in Mr. James Rubinsin Kotulai’s investment program or something. I forgot the name of the program but it was 100% similar to those of junk or spam e-mail you often received in your inbox and normally sent to you by scammer from Nigeria or West Africa. Something like someone inherited someone's wealth or property and they needs you to become their overseas partner to be able to release or claim the money or something.

I did not invest as I was skeptical about the whole thing. I was told that the group managed to accumulate huge sum of money. I lost track about what happened after that. I am not sure whether or not those investors mainly from Rungus community have received back their investment principal and the promised profit. Let me know if any of you have some light about what happened after that.

As a Rungus, I feel so proud that Mr. James Rubinsin Kotulai the CEO of the company founded a company in Thailand. Truly, Rungus can go global. Can we say “Rungus Boleh!!” now? I will reserve it until my good friend a journalist based in Bangkok get back to me about some information related to Aparu International (Thailand) Co. Ptd.

Balik Kampung.


I am not very sure what is "Balik Kampung" in Rungus language. Could it be something like "Muli sid valai" or "Muli sid kampung"? If you have any other words to describe balik kampung in Rungus language feel free to share them here.

Anyway ot the 13th-18th May 2009, I will be flying into Kota Kinabalu for some reasons. First I will be heading up to my kampung (village) in Kudat to attend the wedding ceremony of my lovely cousin. She will be getting married with her lover from Sarawak. So right now I am preparing myself to get battered by Kinupi (local name for rice wine) or Lihing. I am sure Mantaku probably also in the list.

Another very important reason as of why I go balik kampung is to take a look at my pet project. I started a chili farm project with my uncle in my a piece of land. An area of two (2) acres has been allocated for this project. So far I have spent about RM 2000.00 and there will be more spending to do especially to setup the irrigation system and land preparation for the farm. I certainly cannot afford to see it fail after so much time, efforts and money has been spent.

Not that compulsory but quite important to me is to meet some of my good friend and also of course my family. I have been away for several months now so meeting those individuals is deemed important to me. No man is an island. You sure need your family and friends.

I will be very busy and my time is fully occupied. However if you think that you want to meet up with me in Kota Kinabalu (KK) you may let me know and will try to arrange to see you, probably over a couple of chill beer. Avasi montok diau!!!

Brief Introduction About Momogun Rungus (In Malay Language)

I found this article in www.sabah.edu.my website. It is about some brief introduction and history about what is Rungus or momogun and where it came from. In my previous blog post, Mr. Herman in his blog at www.flyingdusun.com said something about Rungus is an immigrant in Sabah. It means we the Rungus people had migrated from somewhere outside Sabah into Sabah.

However this article about Rungus written by our fellow Rungus saying just the opposite. He said Rungus is the first community in Sabah. Both Mr Herman and this guy however failed to give at least some evident in their article. I believe this one was written based on story or tales he heard from our grandfathers or something. Whatever it is, at least some of us has the courage to take up the challenge to document our Rungus history for future generation. That is something we should feel proud about him. My sincere thanks for this guy.

Something we should take note that he was right in saying that most of our younger generation is no longer able to talk and appreciate our Rungus language and culture. I truly feel sad for that.

So here is the article about Momogun Rungus. I will try to translate it into English when I got some free time.

Pengenalan

Apakah yang disebut sebagai Rungus? Momogun?

Masih banyak warga Momogun Rungus di luar sana yang tertanya-tanya,di mana asal usul saya? Apa legenda kaum saya? Laman web ini pastinya dapat membuat anda tertanya-tanya tentang apa yang menarik mengenai suku kaum Rungus.Bagi pencinta sejarah dan seni, maklumat yang dipaparkan dalam laman ini sudah pasti dapat mengupas persoalan anda tentang adat resam, kebudayaan, sejarah dan lain-lain lagi mengenai suku kaum Rungus yang terperuk di hujung Borneo ini.

Setiap butiran maklumat yang dipaparkan dalam laman ini amat berharga buat semua khususnya genarasi muda suku kaum Rungus untuk mengenali bangsa mereka sendiri. Jika kita perhatikan di sekeliling kita, kebanyakan generasi muda zaman sekarang sudah hilang identiti bangsa masing-masing. Contoh paling dekat adalah generasi muda suku kaum Rungus yang tidak tahu akan kebudayaan sendiri. Lebih menyedihkan lagi, ada yang langsung tidak tahu berbahasa Rungus sedangkan bahasa itulah yang melambangkan identiti mereka sebagai bumiputera Rungus.

Dalam era globalisasi ini,bangsa Momogun Rungus berada dalam persimpangan identiti. Bangsa Momogun yang dahulunya serumpun kini berpecah menjadi Kadazan Dusun Murut. Hanya Momogun Rungus sahaja yang masih menggunakan nama bangsa Momogun secara rasmi. Dalam persimpangan identiti yang dicetuskan oleh ketidaktahuan sejarah bangsa sendiri,maka lahirlah kekeliruan yang mendalam pada bangsa Momogun hari ini.
Menurut Dr. Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan (1987) Institut Linguistik S.I.L melaporkan bahasa Rungus dipercayai termasuk dalam bahasa Austronesian keturunan Bornean dari keturunan asal Austronesian.Momogun Rungus kadang-kadang dipanggil sebagai "Momogun", "Dusun Dayak", Melobong Rungus", "Memagun" atau "Memogun" kadang-kadang juga di panggil sebagai "Roongas", "Rungus", "Rungas" dan "Dusun Laut".Semuanya merujuk kepada bangsa Momogun Rungus.

Asal perkataan Momogun di percayai dari segi kepercayaan Agama Labus (pagan) iaitu dari perkataan "PENDUDUK ASAL POGUN NABALU".Momogun diambil dari perkataan POGUN (Dunia). Rungus pula diperolehi sempena nama Aki Rungsud yang mengetuai Pompod Tana setelah diarah oleh Aki Nunuk Ragang.

Menurut mitos Agama Labus Momogun adalah hasil perkataan dari pekerjaan Kinoringan (Allah Pencipta). Ini kerana Kinoringan menaburkan bangsa Momogun di sekitar Gunung Kinabalu (Pampang Nabalu) dengan perkataan yang digunakan "NIASOK". Momogun adalah Asok pertama dan tiada lagi Asok yang lain selain MOMOGUN. Asok bermakna "menabur benih". Menurut kepercayaan itu Momogun adalah Sakag(benih tani) yang ditaburkan seumpama benih pertanian Tuhan sendiri.

Pasok Momogun bermakna "benih atau zuriat tetap bumi di bawah Gunung Kinabalu". Jika orang Momogun menanam padi di ladang mereka menyebutkannya sebagai "MANGASOK". Pasok Momogun merujuk kepada kepercayaan mereka dalam Agama Labus bahawa KINORINGAN sebagai pencipta segalanya di alam semesta dan "Zuriat pertama atau bangsa pertama yang direncanakan oleh Tuhan Pencipta" bagi menghuni kawasan Gunung Kinabalu sehingga ke pesisir pantai adalah Bangsa Momogun.

Momogun adalah satu perkataan yang membawa makna mempunyai kuasa ke atas tanah atau dunia yang Kinoringan mereka berikan pada bangsa mereka. Mereka menganalogikan pekerjaan Kinoringan seperti menabur benih maka jadilah perkataan "PASOK MOMOGUN RUNGUS".

Kita tidak patut persalahkan ibu bapa 100% jika generasi muda sekarang buta tentang adat resam dan kebudayaan bangsa mereka sendiri. Generasi muda ini sepatutnya tahu mengambil inisiatif untuk meningkatkan jati diri bangsa.Seiring dengan kemajuan teknologi perkomputeran dan jaringan maklumat di hujung jari, pencarian identiti bangsa itu sepatutnya bukan hal yang patut diremeh-temehkan.

Oleh yang demikian, laman web ini pastinya memberi jawapan kepada pencarian anda selama ini.Cintai dan peliharalah budaya kita..

Intutunai kondiri, ihimo kivusidwo..
KENALI DIRI, CARI IDENTITI..

Rungus: Immigrants In Sabah

What do you think about this article written by Herman Scholz in his blog www.flyingdusun.com. This article titled The Rungus: The Art of Blending Traditional Life-Style into the 20th Century is trying to tell us more or les about the Rungus community. Whether or not the facts about the Rungus community is accurately written in this article is something we should think about.

From the article, I am particularly interested about this statement by him "..The Rungus seem to have been the last Dusunic immigrants to Sabah to settle here permanently, long before the arrival of the British. They have up to-date conserved much of their cultural heritage. The Rungus are a sub-group of the Kadazan-Dusun, with a distinctive language and a few dialects, architecture, adat (customs), and outfit. Many people still, especially from the elder generation, dress they way they have attired when they were still unaffected by outside influences..". Two questions appear and disturbing my mind.

The first one is actually where does the Rungus migrated from? He said we the Rungus in Sabah is an immigrants to Sabah. Second one is he also failed to tell us when this so called migration took place. Does it mean we the Rungus is not a Bumiputra since we are only an immigrant here. Perhaps just like the Chinese or Indian community? I do not really care whether we are bumiputera status or not. We are all Malaysian right?

And so the full article is here. Read on and tell me what do you think...

The Rungus
The Art of Blending Traditional Life-Style into the 20th Century

by Herman (2000)

The Rungus in the north of Sabah (Kudat area) are arguably the most traditional ethnic group here. They remain remarkably strong in this time of transition, and keep up with an age-old life-style. Their life, as that of most tribes in Borneo, turns around rice: the preparing of the padi filed, or the clearance of a hill plot, the growing of rice and looking after it, and finally the harvest. Large coconut and banana groves enable the Rungus to get cash, but in all, their traditional life-style suits them very much and seems to keep them out of trouble and stress.

The Rungus seem to have been the last Dusunic immigrants to Sabah to settle here permanently, long before the arrival of the British. They have up to-date conserved much of their cultural heritage. The Rungus are a sub-group of the Kadazan-Dusun, with a distinctive language and a few dialects, architecture, adat (customs), and outfit. Many people still, especially from the elder generation, dress they way they have attired when they were still unaffected by outside influences, and it is presumed that most of the other tribes of the Kadazan-Dusun community had similar dresses and attires: simple black sarongs for the women, wide black trousers for the men and beaded accessories.

A visit to an indigenous longhouse is a tremendous and exciting experience. In Sabah, there are only a few places that do cater for tourists on a regular basis, such as the Bavanggazo Longhouse, or the Tinangol Longhouse. These places come with certain facilities that make the stay for foreign travellers and visitors more comfortable. However, travelling in the area of Kudat, taking some abandoned road, stalking along rivers and through lofty coconut groves, one will still come across the traditional longhouse, minus the thatched roof. Corrugated iron has replaced atap, demanding less maintenance. The Rungus Longhouse is quite different form the Murut Longhouse, equally to be found in Sabah. The houses are not perched on excessively high stilts, they are usually only about three to five feet above ground. The roof is low, and in olden times, longhouses of 75 doors have existed. Now they rarely exceed 10 doors, along the communal gallery that has an elevated platform of split bamboo. The house is framed by outward sloping walls of wide-spaced poles. This provides ventilation and a comfortable sitting area for work, relaxation and socialising. Where there is a longhouse, some ‘one-family’ houses might exist, and they often look as if they had been cut out of the original longhouse, like a piece of cake.

Dogs, chicken and other domesticated animal abound in the clearing where the houses stand, and kids too young to help with the daily chores play in the sand. They will quickly announce the arrival of a stranger, and whoever passes will be invited into the house for a rest. During the hot afternoons, a palpable laziness prevails in the houses. People doze on the platform in the gallery or work on some handicraft if they are not at work in the fields, or catch fish and crabs. When everybody comes back from work in the late afternoon, the gallery bounces under the many feet.

At a longhouse it is always possible to stay over night. One has to enquire for the chief of the house, who will accommodate the strangers. Against exchanged goods (or money…), he also provides food. With some luck one is invited to taste some local specialities, and drink some tinonggilan, a slightly sparkling, reasonably alcoholic brew made from maize. This is quite a Rungus speciality. Strangers sleep on the elevated platform in the gallery, together with the bachelors.

When the house gets alive in the late afternoon, the ladies will take out their work of basketry, string beads or weave sashes on backstrap looms. It is not infrequent to see old ladies who have their wrists still encircled in brass coils with white and black shell-bracelets at either end, and wear the traditional home-woven sarong. They also wear antique heirloom beads, and the betel container is an old, finely worked Bruneian brass receptacle. Ladies who do wear traditional gear are often very much respected Bobolizans, the shamans of the Rungus. Besides traditional healing with natural herbs the Bobolizans are here to maintain harmony between humans, nature and astral world according to their age-old belief system.

When it gets dark you are lucky if there is no generator to provide electric light: you are taken on a journey back in time! Tiny little oil-lamps appear, perhaps a gas-pressure lamp, and people gather by families and friends to discuss daily matters and exchange gossip. It is only after nightfall that the ladies will start husking the rice for the evening and breakfast meal, in old, wooden mortars with heavy pestles of ironwood. The sound and rhythm of the pounding of rice, the women winnowing in the twilight, the pigs grunting under the floor of the house, all contributes to give the whole an air of peace and long past days.

But despite this peace and aspect of eternal sleepiness, the Rungus are far from being disconnected from our modern times. Cash-crops have allowed them already over the last 30 years to earn money, and in some cases wealth. The young people are being educated, some of them having reached university degrees and have entered the Sabah State Government.

Many Rungus work in town, and they seem generally quite enterprising. Nevertheless, often when there is enough money to pay dowries, the men prefer going back to the quiet and peaceful life of the kampung, where they take a wife. Then they might engage, next to their farming activities, in tourism, and Bavanggazo and Tinangol are good examples of the spirit of enterprise of the Rungus.

Sumangkap is another such an example, a village where almost everybody is making gongs – the most important instrument throughout Borneo. The Rungus have indeed mastered the difficult and tricky combination of a traditional life-style with the advancement of ‘modern’ ideas, and preserved ancient skills, in a world spinning much faster around them.

If you wish to experience Rungus life let yourself be inspired by our offer Culture Shock!

The Future Of Contract Farming For Rungus Community

I am not mad. At least not yet. But I can foresee the future. It is about the implementation of contract farming system for Rungus community.

I stumbled upon this paper in www.google.com “The Importance of Implementing a Contract Farming System in Sabah” a paper that was written by my good friend, presented in the conference at the University of Otago in 2007. University of Otago is one of the most prestigious and respected university, being the biggest and oldest university in New Zealand located in the South Island in the peaceful city of Dunedin.

I had the opportunity to visit University of Otago 7 years ago when I was on my journey toQueenstown. University of Otago or the city of Dunedin.

I am not going to talk in detail about this particular university nor about the city of Dunedin. What I am going to tell you is that if contract farming system is to be introduced and implemented to the Rungus community, it will fail miserably. That is what I believe.

Contract farming is like what FELDA or FELCRA is doing at the moment. Giving start-up capital, technical know-how and promises to buy back the produces. On the paper it is beautiful. I supposed it is much more beautiful than Angeline Jolie or Aiswarya Rai but the implementation is another matter.

The system is probably good for palm oil plantation or rubber plantation. But it is not yet 100% proven successful with other agriculture projects. Successful in one or two farms cannot be taken as the basis to announce that the system is good.

Many big farms in New Zealand and Australia in not based on contract farming. Those farmers are very successful. Most of them have private helicopter.

Contract farming system needs a big area otherwise the project will not be so viable or profitable. You will have to sign an agreement with some big company in which most of the terms will not be so helpful and fair to the farmers.

After the agreement is signed, you will not be so free to change your mind about how to run your own farm. You will need to buy the seeds or seedlings from the company and sell the produce to them at the specified price as in the agreement.

There was a case where the company made profit selling seeds and seedlings to farmer then after their stock runs out they simply vanished from the face of this earth. Where and how to find them?

There were also some cases where, when the farm is ready for harvesting the company disappear or refuse to buy the produce. So you will be eating your harvest 24 hours, 7 days a week. Sometime the company will buy back but they push down the price with some allegation will be leveled to you such as they will accuse you about using other variety of seeds or seedlings or you failed to follow instructions and advices from them.

Sometimes the system is so successful and the market is overly supplied. The supply is too much so the price will be happily going down. If this happens you will have to suffer huge losses.

I remember 25 years ago the government told the people that corn have a good market with attractive price. So everybody quickly planted corn and the market was flooded with corns. The price went down and that was the time I eat corn like I eat rice. I guess planning is important. We should be able to process them into other products to ensure the price does not go down so dramatically. The government failed to do that, the farmer also fail to do the same due to lacking in capital and technology.

Now most of our Rungus young blood migrated and live in the city. Only those people who are 45 years old and above remain in the village. Who will be the work force to ensure the contract farming can be implemented successfully. I know you will be talking about hiring foreign workers. Our villages in the Kampung will be flooded with foreigners and before you know they are kicking you out from your own village. There are so many visible signs about this.

Putting it on the paper and present it to people in New Zealand (University of Otago) who does not know the real situation is easy but implementation will be entirely another matter. You can produce countless more paper such as this but think before you write them.